Hypertension hyponatremia syndrome occurred in a 32-week male neonate following septicemic shock on Day 9. The systolic blood pressure rose from 60 to 85 mmHg as the serum sodium dropped from 136 to 121 mmol/L associated with natriuresis, polyuria, and dehydration. Convulsions occurred at a systolic blood pressure of 102 mmHg. Investigations for hypertension revealed hyper-reninemia without cardio/renovascular or neuroendocrine abnormalities. Salt supplementation and antihypertensive therapy with captopril led to resolution of natriuresis and hyponatremia. Review of literature revealed associated renovascular pathology in all neonatal cases of the syndrome reported so far. Renal ischemia from possible renal microthrombi may have been the triggering event in our case. Decline in renin levels during follow-up favors this hypothesis.
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